1) TEMPLE, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh, 10 miles (S. S. E.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the village of Gorebridge, and part of Stobbsmills, 1159 inhabitants. The name of this place was derived from an establishment of the Templars, or Red Friars, founded by David I. The parish comprehends the ancient parish of Clerkington, and the chapelries of Morthwait and Balantrodach. The manor of Clerkington was given to Walter Bisset by David II., who also transferred the church, with its tithes and pertinents, to the monks of Newbottle, granting them, in addition, five merks yearly from the manor. In the reign of Robert III., Archibald, Earl of Angus, sold the barony to Adam Forrester, of Corstorphine, to whom it was confirmed by a charter from Robert, who likewise granted him a release of the Castle Wards, issuing from this barony to the king. Mark Ker, the Commendator of Newbottle, at the time of the Reformation enjoyed the patronage of the church, with the rent of five merks from the mill of Clerkington; and he transmitted the whole unimpaired to his descendants. In 1695, however, it appears that Sir John Nicolson possessed that part of the parish called Clerkington, which then formed a barony named Nicolson. In this year it was sold to Archibald Primrose, of Dalmeny, in Linlithgowshire, who obtained a charter under the great seal, by which this property, with some adjacent lands, was erected into the barony of Rosebery, from which he assumed his peerage title when created a Viscount in 1700. The first earl of Rosebery, in 1712, disposed of the estate to the Marquess of Lothian, who changed its name into New Ancrum; but being sold by the family in 1749 to Mr. Hepburne, he restored the old name of Clerkington. In 1821, Archibald John, the fourth earl of Rosebery, purchased it from one of Mr. Hepburne's descendants; he gave the barony the name it had possessed when in his family, and was created a peer of the United Kingdom under the title of Rosebery in 1828.
   The lands of Morthwait, the hamlet of which stands three miles from Clerkington, were granted by David I. to the monks of Newbottle, who also obtained from Alexander II. the forest of Gladewys. Upon this, they established a chapel at Morthwait, the patronage of which was vested in the abbot until the Reformation, after which the commendator, coming into his place, enjoyed his privileges, and the estates of the abbey were converted into a temporal lordship, that descended to the heirs of the commendator, earls of Ancrum and marquesses of Lothian. The chapelry or manor of Balantrodach was situated on the east of the Gladehouse water, which is afterwards called the South Esk. This manor was granted by David I. to the Templars, who formed here their principal seat in Scotland, and built a chapel. On the suppression of the order in 1312, all their property and privileges in this parish passed to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem; and at the Reformation the estates were converted into a temporal lordship for Sir James Sandilands, their preceptor, who was created Lord Torphichen. The barony and regality became vested in the family as lords of parliament; and on the abolition of hereditary jurisdictions in 1747, Lord Torphichen received £134. 12. 6. as a compensation for this regality. After the Reformation the parish of Clerkington and the chapelries of Morthwait and Balantrodach were united into one incumbency; the Templars' chapel was used as the church, and the patronage of the new parish of Temple was distributed into three shares, corresponding with the three ancient establishments. One of these passed to Lord Torphichen; and the other two, at first belonging to the earls of Ancrum, were acquired in the 18th century, with the manor of Clerkington, by the Hepburnes.
   The extreme length of the parish is about nine miles; its greatest breadth is five miles, and it contains about 20,000 acres, to which must be added 300 acres, locally situated in Borthwick parish, but belonging to the parish of Temple. It is bounded on the north and north-west by Carrington parish; on the south and south-west by the parishes of Eddleston and Innerleithen; on the east and north-east by Borthwick; on the south-east by Heriot; and on the west by Penicuick. The most elevated ground is the mountain range of Moorfoot, a continuation of Lammermoor, stretching nearly from north-east to south-west, and which is from 1500 to 2100 feet above the level of the sea. The South Esk, the principal river, rising in the Moorfoot hills, runs in a north-east direction for about twelve miles through the parish, when it is joined by the North Water, which, issuing from West Loch, in Eddlestone parish, after winding about forms the north-west boundary of this parish. The river afterwards joins the North Esk, which falls into the Frith of Forth at Musselburgh. The soil on the arable land is mostly dry and sharp, resting on a gravelly bottom; in the eastern quarter it is chiefly clay, and on the higher lands a large proportion of it is mossy, reaching to a depth of from three to four inches. About one hundred acres are under wood, consisting principally of oak, ash, elm, beech, and pine. The most improved methods of husbandry have been introduced; and the land, which is tolerably fertile, produces good crops. The farm-buildings and inclosures are generally in fair condition; the latter are usually formed of stones. Some waste land has recently been reclaimed, but the low price of agricultural produce has at times operated to damp efforts of this description. The average rent of arable land is about £1 per acre, and the leases usually run nineteen years: there are four proprietors, the chief being R. Dundas, Esq., of Arniston, and the Earl of Rosebery; and the rateable annual value of the parish amounts to £6792. The rock of the Moorfoot hills is greywacke, and in most parts of the parish there is an abundant supply of limestone and freestone, which are quarried to a considerable extent: in the eastern part, the district detached from Temple contains a large supply of coal.
   The villages are Temple and Gorebridge, with a part of Stobbsmills, the larger portion of which is in the parish of Borthwick. The population of the village of Temple amounts to about 200; and the rest, excepting the inhabitants of Gorebridge and Stobbsmills, are scattered over the parish. They are all employed in agricultural pursuits, with the exception of those engaged in the quarries and coal-pits, and in the gunpowder manufacture, which is carried on to a very considerable extent. It was commenced at Stobbsmills in 1794, and has been since largely extended, the works now exporting powder to almost every part of the globe; the buildings occupy nearly three-quarters of a mile square, and the apartments exposed to the greatest risk are detached, and situated between the natural barriers of a glen or artificial mounds planted with trees. A line of turnpike-road running from Peebles to Dalkeith traverses the parish, on which the carrier from the village of Temple travels to Edinburgh. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; patron, Dundas of Arniston. The stipend of the minister is £158, of which £92 are received from the exchequer; with a manse, an old building repaired about forty-five years ago, and a glebe of fourteen acres, valued at £30 per annum. The old church, a small Gothic structure, is supposed to have been built very early; the new one was erected in its place in 1832, and is neat, commodious, and well situated, accommodating 500 persons with sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there is a chapel at Gorebridge, belonging to the United Secession; also a small chapel once held by the Anabaptists, in that part of Stobbsmills within the parish of Temple. There is a parochial school, in which are taught the classics, mathematics, and all the usual branches of education; the master has the maximum salary, with a house, and school fees amounting to about £30 per annum. Two private schools are supported entirely by fees; and there is a good subscription library at Gorebridge, consisting of 800 volumes; also a friendly society at Stobbsmills, and a savings' bank jointly for the parishes of Temple and Borthwick. A few years ago, a medal of Oliver Cromwell was found on the farm of Rosebery, which is in the possession of the landed proprietor.
   2) TEMPLE, a village, in the parish of Largo, district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife; containing 109 inhabitants. This is a small place at the mouth of the Kiel, and is included, with Drumochy, in the village of Lower Largo; and inhabited, like Drumochy, by fishermen and artisans. It is distant east-north-east from Leven about two miles.

A Topographical dictionary of Scotland. . 1856.


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  • temple — [ tɑ̃pl ] n. m. • temple de Salomon 1080; lat. templum 1 ♦ (1170) Didact. Édifice public consacré au culte d une divinité. ⇒aussi église, mosquée, pagode, synagogue. « La crainte a élevé des temples » (Valéry). Consacrer; profaner un temple. 2 ♦… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Temple — • The Latin form, templum, from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an uncovered area marked off by boundaries; especially the place marked off by the augurs to be excepted from all profane uses Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • temple — 1. (tan pl ) s. m. 1°   Chez les Romains, lieu découvert d où la vue pouvait s étendre, et consacré par les augures. •   Le sénat ne pouvait s assembler légalement que dans un lieu consacré par les augures, auquel on donnait pour cette raison le… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Temple — bezeichnet: Temple (Paris) ein ehemaliges Ordensgebiet der Templer in Paris und das in diesem Gebiet gelegene 3. Arrondissement von Paris Temple (Métro Paris) eine U Bahn Station in Paris Teile des ehemaligen Ordensgebiets der Templer in London:… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Temple — puede referirse a: Templanza, una virtud. La técnica de pintura denominada pintura al temple. La Orden del Temple, orden medieval de carácter religioso y militar nacida en la primera cruzada. Templado del acero Sir William Temple, estadista y… …   Wikipedia Español

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